Solution Manual For Research Methods for Education By J. Privitera

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Solution Manual For Research Methods for Education By Gregory J. Privitera, Lynn Ahlgrim-Delzell, ISBN: 9781506303321, ISBN: 9781544337579, ISBN: 9781544337586

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Solution Manual For Research Methods for Education By J. Privitera

Solution Manual For Research Methods for Education By Gregory J. Privitera, Lynn Ahlgrim-Delzell, ISBN: 9781506303321, ISBN: 9781544337579, ISBN: 9781544337586

From award-winning author Gregory J. Privitera and Lynn Ahlgrim-Delzell, Research Methods for Education covers the different quantitative and qualitative research methods specific to their use in educational research. This new text uses a problem-focused approach that fully integrates the decision tree—from choosing a research design to selecting an appropriate statistic for analysis.

With a conversational, student-friendly writing style, and examples from a wide variety of education-related fields, the authors show how methods and statistics work together and enable the testing of hypotheses through use of the scientific method. Students will become informed consumers of research with the ability to understand a research article, judge its quality and apply the methods in action research to inform educational practice.

Table Of Content

About the Authors
Chapter 1—Introduction to Scientific Thinking

1.1 Science as a Method of Knowing

1.2 The Scientific Method: Relevance in Educational Research

1.3 Other Methods of Knowing

1.4 The Goals of Science

1.5 Approaches in Acquiring Knowledge

1.6 Distinguishing Science From Pseudoscience

Chapter 2—Generating Testable Ideas

2.1 Generating Interesting and Novel Ideas

2.2 Converting Ideas to Hypotheses and Theories

2.3 Developing Your Idea: Deduction and Induction

2.4 Performing a Literature Review

2.5 Ethics in Focus: Giving Proper Credit

2.6 The “3 Cs” of an Effective Literature Review

2.7 Testing Your Idea: Confirmation and Disconfirmation

2.8 Ethics in Focus: Publication Bias

Chapter 3—Research Ethics

3.1 Ethics in Educational Research

3.2 The Need for Ethics Committees in Research: A Historical Synopsis

3.3 Ethics in Focus: Classic Examples From Psychology

3.4 Human Participant Research: IRBs and the AERA Code of Conduct

3.5 Ethics in Focus: Anonymity and Confidentiality

3.6 Additional Ethical Considerations: Scientific Integrity

Chapter 4—Scientific Variables, Validity, and Reliability

4.1 Criteria for Defining and Measuring Variables

4.2 Constructs and Operational Definitions

4.3 Types of Variables

4.4 Scales of Measurement

4.5 Reliability of a Measurement

4.6 Validity of a Measurement

4.7 Intervention Fidelity

4.8 Selecting a Measurement Procedure

4.9 Ethics in Focus: Replication as a Gauge for Fraud?

Chapter 5—Instrumentation

5.1 Classifying Data Collection Instruments

5.2 Tests and Measures

5.3 Types of Questionnaire Items

5.4 Rules for Writing Survey Items

5.5 Administering Questionnaires

5.6 Interviewing

5.7 Ethics in Focus: Maintaining Confidentiality of Collected Data

Chapter 6—Sampling From Populations

6.1 Why Do Researchers Select Samples?

6.2 Subjects, Participants, and Sampling Methods

6.3 Methods of Sampling: Nonprobability Sampling

6.4 Methods of Sampling: Probability Sampling

6.5 Sampling Error and Standard Error of the Mean

6.6 Potential Biases in Sampling

6.7 Ethics in Focus: Research in Schools

Chapter 7—Choosing a Research Design

7.1 Designing a Study to Answer a Question

7.2 Categories of Research Design

7.3 Internal and External Validity

7.4 Demonstrating Cause in an Experiment

7.5 Ethics in Focus: Beneficence and Random Assignment

7.6 Threats to the Internal Validity of a Research Study

7.7 Threats to the External Validity of a Research Study

7.8 External Validity, Experimentation, and Realism

7.9 A Final Thought on Validity and Choosing a Research Design

Chapter 8—Naturalistic and Existing Data Research Designs

Naturalistic Designs

8.1 An Overview of Naturalistic Design

8.2 The Research Setting: Natural and Contrived Settings

8.3 Techniques for Making Unobtrusive Observations

8.4 Making Observations

8.5 Ethics in Focus: Influencing Participant Behavior

Existing Data Designs

8.6 An Overview of Existing Data Designs

8.7 Archival Research, Content Analysis, and Meta-Analysis

8.8 Ethics in Focus: Existing Data and Experimenter Bias

Chapter 9—Survey and Correlational Research Designs

Survey Designs

9.1 An Overview of Survey Designs

9.2 Surveys, Sampling, and Nonresponse Bias

9.3 Survey Methods

9.4 Ethics in Focus: Handling and Administering Surveys

Correlational Designs

9.5 The Structure of Correlational Designs

9.6 Describing the Relationship Between Variables

9.7 Limitations in Interpretation

9.8 Correlation, Regression, and Prediction

Chapter 10—Introduction to Qualitative Research

10.1 What Is Qualitative Research?

10.2 Foundations of Qualitative Research

10.3 Theoretical Perspectives in Qualitative Research

10.4 Steps in Qualitative Research

10.5 Role of the Researcher and Entry Into the Field

10.6 Sampling in Qualitative Research

10.7 Types of Qualitative Data

10.8 Ethics in Focus: Using the Internet in Qualitative Research

Chapter 11—Phenomenology, Ethnography, and Ground Theory Designs

11.1 An Overview of Phenomenology Designs

11.2 An Example of Phenomenology Research

11.3 Considerations for Participant Self-Descriptions

11.4 An Overview of Ethnography Designs

11.5 Making Observations in Group Settings

11.6 An Example of Ethnography Research

11.7 An Overview of Netnography and Autoethnography Research

11.8 An Overview of Grounded Theory Designs

11.9 An Example of Grounded Theory Designs

11.10 Ethics in Focus: Anonymity in Qualitative Research

Chapter 12—Narrative Inquiry, Case Study, and Critical Theory Designs

Narrative Research Designs

12.1 An Overview of Narrative Research

12.2 Considerations for Narrative Inquiry

12.3 An Example of Narrative Research

Case Study Designs

12.4 An Overview of Case Study Designs

12.5 Types of Case Study Designs

12.6 Combining Case Study Design With Quantitative Data

Critical Theory Designs

12.7 An Overview of Critical Theory Designs

12.8 Types of Critical Theory Designs

12.9 Ethics in Focus: Retelling Human

Chapter 13—Quasi-Experimental and Single-Case Experimental Designs

Quasi-Experimental Designs

13.1 An Overview of Quasi-Experimental Designs

13.2 One-Group Designs

13.3 Quasi-Experimental Design: Nonequivalent Control Group Designs

13.4 Quasi-Experimental Design: Time-Series Designs

Single-Case Experimental Designs

13.5 An Overview of Single-Case Designs

13.6 Single-Case Baseline-Phase Designs

13.7 Application of Single-Case Designs in an Applied School Setting

13.8 Single-Case Designs in the Identification of Effective

13.9 Validity, Stability, Magnitude, and Generality

13.10 Ethics in Focus: The Ethics of Innovation

Chapter 14—Experimental Designs: Between Subjects, Within Subjects, and Factorial

14.1 Conducting Experiments: Between-Subjects Design

14.2 Experimental Versus Control Group

14.3 Manipulation, Variability, and the Independent Variable

14.4 Ethics in Focus: The Accountability of Manipulation

14.5 Comparing Two or More Independent Samples

14.6 Conducting Experiments: Within-Subjects Design

14.7 Controlling Time-Related Factors

14.8 Comparing Two or More Related Samples

14.9 Comparing Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects Designs

14.10 Conducting Experiments: Factorial Experimental Designs

14.11 Types of Factorial Designs

14.12 Including Quasi-Independent Factors in an Experiment

14.13 Higher-Order Factorial Designs

Chapter 15—Mixed-Methods Research Designs

15.1 An Overview of Mixed-Methods Research Designs

15.2 When Use of Mixed-Methods Research Designs Is Appropriate

15.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using a Mixed-Methods Research Design

15.4 Types of Mixed-Methods Research Designs

15.5 Conducting Mixed-Methods Research

15.6 Ethics in Focus: Minimizing Risk Associated With Qualitative and Quantitative Research

Chapter 16—Action Research

16.1 The Fundamentals of Action Research

16.2 Types of Action Research

16.3 The Process of Conducting Action Research

16.4 Ethics in Focus: Ethical Considerations in Action Research

16.5 Evaluation of Action Research

Chapter 17—Program Evaluation

17.1 The Fundamentals of Program Evaluation

17.2 Difference Between Program Evaluation and Research

17.3 Program Evaluation Standards

17.4 Utility and Importance of Program Evaluation

17.5 Ethics in Focus: Considerations for Protecting the Welfare of Stakeholders

17.6 Models for Program Evaluation

17.7 Steps in Program Evaluation

Chapter 18—Analysis and Interpretation: Exposition of Data

18.1 Descriptive Statistics: Why Summarize Data?

18.2 Frequency Distributions: Tables and Gra

18.3 Measures of Central Tendency

18.4 Measures of Variability

18.5 Graphing Means and Correlations

18.6 Using Correlation to Describe Reliability

18.7 Standard Scores, z Scores, Percentile Ranks, and Age/Grade Equivalents

18.8 Ethics in Focus: Deception Due to the Distortion of Data

Chapter 19—Analysis and Interpretation: Making Inferences About Data

19.1 Inferential Statistics: What Are We Making Inferences About?

19.2 Types of Error and Power

19.3 Parametric Tests: Applying the Decision Tree

19.4 Main Effects and Interactions

19.5 Identifying Main Effects and Interactions in a Graph

19.6 Correlation and Regression

19.7 Nonparametric Tests: Applying the Decision Tree

19.8 Effect Size: How Big Is an Effect in the Population?

19.9 Estimation: What Are the Possible Values of a Parameter?

19.10 Confidence Intervals, Significance, and Effect Size

19.11 Issues for Interpretation: Precision and Certainty

19.12 Ethics in Focus: Full Disclosure of Data

Chapter 20—Analysis and Interpretation: Making Inferences About Qualitative Data

20.1 Qualitative Versus Quantitative Data Analysis

20.2 Decisions About How to Record Narrative Data

20.3 Decisions About Quantitative Data Analysis and Interpretation

20.4 General Process of Qualitative Data Analysis

20.5 Qualitative Coding Tools

20.6 Interpretations Made Using Different Qualitative Designs in the Data Analysis Process

20.7 Criteria of Trustworthiness

20.8 Ethics in Focus: Confidentiality

Chapter 21—Communicating Research: Preparing Manuscripts, Posters, and Talks

21.1 Elements of Communication

21.2 Writing a Manuscript: Writing Style and Language

21.3 Elements of an APA-Style Manuscript

21.4 Literature Reviews

21.5 Reporting Observations in Qualitative Research

21.6 Ethics in Focus: Credit and Authorship

21.7 Presenting a Poster

21.8 Giving a Professional Talk

Appendix A: APA-Style Writing, Sample Manuscript, and Posters

A.1 Essentials for Writing APA-Style Research Papers

A.2 Grammar, Punctuation, and Spelling (GPS) Writing Guide

A.3 Sample APA-Style Manuscript

A.4 Poster Template and Sample Poster

Appendix B: Instructions for Randomizing and Counterbalancing

B.1 Random Numbers Table

B.2 Constructing a Latin Square