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Test Bank For Learning Principles and Applications 8th Edition By Klein

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Test Bank For Learning Principles and Applications 8th Edition By Stephen B. Klein, ISBN: 9781544323664

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Test Bank For Learning Principles and Applications 8th Edition By Klein

Test Bank For Learning Principles and Applications 8th Edition By Stephen B. Klein, ISBN: 9781544323664

Learning: Principles and Applications provides students a current, comprehensive, and engaging introduction to the psychology of learning. Praised for its easy-to-read style and presentation of important contributions of both human and nonhuman animal research, the text helps readers understand the process of learning with coverage of classic experiments, contemporary research, real-world examples, applications, chapter-opening vignettes, and critical thinking questions. The Eighth Edition features expanded sections on theories of conditioning, a streamlined organization through two separate chapters on memory storage and retrieval, and enhanced pedagogy to better connect the material to the everyday lives of students.

Table Of Content

Preface
Acknowledgments
About the Author
Chapter 1. An Introduction to Learning

The Gift of Knowledge

A Definition of Learning

Functionalism

Behaviorism

Thorndike

Pavlov

Watson

The Ethics of Conducting Research

Critical Thinking Questions

Key Terms

Chapter 2. The Modification of Instinctive Behavior

If Only This Time

The Instinctive Basis of Behavior

Habituation and Sensitization

Dishabituation

Learning in the Aplysia Californica

Opponent-Process Theory

The Addictive Process

Critical Thinking Questions

Key Terms

Chapter 3. Principles and Applications of Pavlovian Conditioning

A Lingering Fear

Principles of Pavlovian Conditioning

Temporal Relationships Between the Conditioned Stimulus and the Unconditioned Stimulus

Conditions Affecting the Acquisition of a Conditioned Response

Extinction of the Conditioned Response

Other Inhibitory Processes

A Conditioned Response Without Conditioned Stimulus– Unconditioned Stimulus Pairings

Applications of Pavlovian Conditioning

Critical Thinking Questions

Key Terms

Chapter 4. Theories of Pavlovian Conditioning

He Never Saw It Coming

The Nature of the Conditioned Response

Stimulus-Substitution Theory

The Conditioning of an Opponent Response

Sometimes-Opponent-Process Theory

The Nature of the Pavlovian Conditioning Process

Rescorla–Wagner Associative Model

The Unconditioned Stimulus Preexposure Effect

The Potentiation of a Conditioned Response

The Conditioned Stimulus Preexposure Effect

The Cue Deflation Effect

The Importance of Within-Compound Associations

A Comparator Theory of Pavlovian Conditioning

Mackintosh’s Attentional View

The Retrospective Processing View

Critical Thinking Questions

Key Terms

Chapter 5. Principles and Applications of Appetitive Conditioning

A Loss of Control

The Legacy of B. F. Skinner

Instrumental and Operant Conditioning

Types of Reinforcement

Shaping

Schedules of Reinforcement

How Readily Is an Instrumental or Operant Response Learned?

Extinction of an Instrumental or Operant Response

Partial Reinforcement and Resistance to Extinction

Contingency Management

Critical Thinking Questions

Key Terms

Chapter 6. Principles and Applications of Aversive Conditioning

A Good Spanking

Principles of Aversive Conditioning

Escape Conditioning

Vicious Circle Behavior

The Avoidance of Aversive Events

Punishment

Types of Punishment

The Effectiveness of Punishment

The Negative Consequences of Punishment

Applications of Aversive Conditioning

The Ethical Use of Punishment

Critical Thinking Questions

Key Terms

Chapter 7. Theories of Appetitive and Aversive Conditioning

A Lack of Self-Control

The Nature of Reinforcement

Probability-Differential Theory

Application: The Use of Activity Reinforcement

Response Deprivation Theory

Principles of Behavioral Economics

The Pain of Failure

The Nature of Avoidance Learning

The Nature of Punishment

Critical Thinking Questions

Key Terms

Chapter 8. Biological Influences on Learning

A Nauseating Experience

Generality of the Laws of Learning

A Behavior Systems Approach

Animal Misbehavior

Schedule-Induced Behavior

Flavor Aversion Learning

Flavor Preference Learning

Imprinting

The Avoidance of Aversive Events

The Biology of Reinforcement

Critical Thinking Questions

Key Terms

Chapter 9. Traditional Learning Theories

The Oldies But Goodies

Traditional Learning Theories

Hull’s Associative Theory

An Evaluation of Associative Theory

Spence’s Acquired Motive Approach

Guthrie’s Contiguity View

An Evaluation of Contiguity Theory

Tolman’s Purposive Behaviorism

An Evaluation of Purposive Behaviorism

Critical Thinking Questions

Key Terms

Chapter 10. Stimulus Control of Behavior

A Disappointing Review

The Stimulus Generalization Process

Discrimination Learning

Behavioral Contrast

Occasion Setting

Hull–Spence Theory of Discrimination Learning

Errorless Discrimination Training

The Transposition Effect

Sutherland and Mackintosh’s Attentional View

Continuity Versus Noncontinuity

Critical Thinking Questions

Key Terms

Chapter 11. Cognitive Control of Behavior

The Insurmountable Barrier

Tolman’s Purposive Behaviorism

A Mental Representation of Events

The Importance of Habits

Learned Helplessness

Hopelessness Theory of Depression

The Neuroscience of Learned Helplessness

A Cognitive View of Phobic Behavior

Concept Learning

Critical Thinking Questions

Key Terms

Chapter 12. The Storage of Our Experiences

A Fleeting Experience

Measures of Memory

A Three-Stage View of Memory Storage

Sensory Register

Short-Term Store

A Rehearsal Systems Approach

Long-Term Store

The Neuroscience of Memory Storage

Critical Thinking Questions

Key Terms

Chapter 13. Memory Retrieval and Forgetting

A Look Into the Past

Memory Retrieval

How Quickly We Forget

Interference

Reconstruction of the Past

False Memory Syndrome

Motivated Forgetting

The Neuroscience of Memory Retrieval

Application: Mnemonics

Critical Thinking Questions

Key Terms
Glossary
References
Author Index
Subject Index